joi, 2 aprilie 2009

Afganistan - terra nullius




poza simbol a revistei National Geografic, cu fata afgană fotografiata în anii '80 si regasita apoi dupa 20 de ani mult îmbatrânită


culturile de mac din care se fabrica opiul si heroina sunt unica sursa de venit pentru ţăranii afgani( 80% din productia mondiala de opiu!!!)

soldati sovietici în timpul războiului din anii 1979-1989


misiune de salvare a armatei americane


soldati români în Afganistan
harta cu distributia etnica si tribala si administrativa din Afganistan
una dintre cele doua statui uriase ale lui Buddha din Afganistan, distruse cu tancurile de catre talibani


Afganistan- ţară situată între Orientul Mijlociu şi spaţiul indiano-pakistanez şi numită de Arnold Toynbee ,,rascrucea drumurilor antice”.
Bântuită de numeroase razboaie interetnice, mai ales dupa proclamarea independentei 1919, când devine monarhie şi dupa 1973 când se declara republică sub conducerea lui Muhammad Daud, Afganistanul devine scena luptelor pentru putere între conservatorii islamişti şi partidele reformatoare susţinute de cele două mari puteri militare din anii 80.
În 1979 noul sef al statului Babrak Karmal solicită intervenţia armatei sovietice care pierde pâna în 1988 (anul retragerii trupelor sovietice ) peste 15 mii de militari.
Razboiul civil generează o cursă a înarmării celor peste 20 de grupuri etnice (tadjici în nord, pushtuni, uzbeci şi turkmeni în nord, hazara în centru, beluchi în sud, hindusi) care sunt ajutate de SUA pe de o parte(mujahedinii şi talibanii ) şi de URSS ( guvernul comunist), ce are drept consecinta pierderi de vieţi omeneşti (1. 5 mil. afgani), cinci milioane de refugiaţi la sfârşitul ocupaţiei sovietice răspândiţi în Pakistan (mai ales hazarii, un popor cu trăsături asiatice şi musulmani sunniţi) şi Iran dar si pagube materiale uriaşe.
În urma acordurilor de pace şi a intervenţiei ONU, se pune capăt războiului civil iar la putere vin mujahedinii şi talibanii care instituie o republica islamică în care sunt îngrădite drepturi şi libertăţi elementare.
Asocierea guvernului talibanilor cu liderul Al Qaeda, Osama Bin Laden şi ajutorul dat în atacurile teroriste din capitala Kenyei– Nairobi şi de la WTC, a generat răspunsul ferm al SUA şi al coaliţiei împotriva terorismului din care fac parte ţări de pe toate continentele.
Astăzi autoritatea guvernului şi a preşedintelui Hamid Karzai abia trece de limita Kabulului în rest autoproclamaţi sefi de regiuni şi membri ai temutei mafii Panjshairi (afaceri cu opiu) deţin controlul a peste 80 % din teritoriu.
Conform clasificarii lui Robert Cooper, Afganistanul este un stat premodern, un fel de ,, terra nullius” cu suveranitati nominale în care diferitele etnii sau grupari religioase (a se vedea situatia hazarilor din centrul tarii, persecutati religios datorita apartenentei la curentul sunnit) organizeaza teritoriul pe principii feudale.

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